Mann-Whitney U test is used to compare the means of two groups. Mann-Whitney U test is the nonparametric equivalent of the independent sample t-test. While the t-test makes an assumption about the distribution of a population, Mann‑Whitney U Test does not make such assumption. Mann-Whitney U test have the following hypotheses: Null hypothesis: The two populations are equal. Alternative hypothesis: The two populations are not equal. Assumption 1. Dependent variable should be continuous. 2. Independent…

Paired‑Samples T Test in SPSS Paired‑Samples T Test compares the means of two measurements taken from the same individual, object, or related units. Paired‑Samples T Test has the following hypotheses: Null hypothesis: The mean of the paired differences is equal to zero. Alternative hypothesis: The mean of the paired differences is not equal to zero. Assumption 1. Variable should be continuous. 2. Observations should be independent. 3. Dependent variable should be approximately normal. 4. Outliers should not be…